II. American Psychological Association (APA) Style

  • Book by a single author and in a new edition
  • Book by two to six authors
  • Books with editors
  • Work from a collection
  • Book published in several volumes
  • Introduction, preface, foreward or afterword
  • Entry in an encyclopedia
  • Publication of a corporation, foundation, or government agency
  • Pamphlet or brochure
  • Article in a scholarly journal
  • Article in a monthly periodical
  • Article in a magazine
  • Article in a newspaper
  • Letter to the editor
  • Editorial
  • Review
  • Personal interview
  • Episode from a television series
  • Audio recording
  • Video recording
  • Work of art/illustration
  • Classic works (e.g. Bible)

    Electronic Resources
  • Electronic book
  • Article in an online journal
  • Article in an online magazine
  • Article in an online version of a newspaper
  • Article from a subscription service
  • Document from a web site
  • E-mail or online posting
  • Introduction

    The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) has evolved from a set of rules and standards initially published in 1929 and intended exclusively for the American Psychological Association, to a set of commonly accepted guidelines for citations in the field of psychology. APA style is now also frequently used in other disciplines in the social sciences. The 5th edition of the Publication Manual is a culmination of work started in 1999 to incorporate needed changes in areas of statistical representations, ethics and authorship, and electronic referencing and manuscript preparation. The APA Style web site (http://www.apastyle.org) is kept up to date with changes in the area of referencing as they occur.

    This guide is focused on the most commonly used types of resources in student papers and their recommended reference style. In APA style, references are cited within parentheses in the text, providing author's last name, year of publication, and specific page (if you are quoting the source), with the full citations listed alphabetically at the end of the paper in the reference list (References).

    The 5th edition of the Publication Manual (2001) assumes availability of a word processing program that enables use of italics and bold typeface. It does note that if a typewriter is used when preparing a paper, titles that would be italicized on a word processor are underlined (286).

    There are four formats that are the basis for the examples that follow. Some materials require additional information to properly give credit as is demonstrated in the media examples where writers, directors, producers, and performers are included in the citations.

    The 5th edition of the Publication Manual specifies that all text in a paper should be double-spaced including reference pages, and standard indents of first lines throughout the manuscript, but it does allow exceptions for student papers at the undergraduate level (322). Check with your instructor for specific instructions.

    In this guide, our reference list examples are single-spaced for readability, and follow the typeset version with hanging indents (first line flush to left margin, following line(s) indented by.5 inch).

    Continuous paged periodicals (e.g. journals, magazines, newsletters, newspapers):

    Template

    Author. (year). Title of article. Name of periodical,volume, pages.

    For periodicals that begin each issue with page 1:

    Template:

    Author. (year). Title of article. Name of periodical,volume (issue no.), pages.

    Nonperiodicals (e.g. book, video audiocassette):

    Template:

    Author. (year). Title of item . Location of publication: Publisher.

    Online periodicals (e.g. from subscription databases, online journals):

    Template:

    Author. (year). Title of article. Name of periodical, volume, pages. Retrieved month day, year, from source.

    Online document (e.g. websites, webpages):

    Template:

    Author. (year). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from source.

    Examples of In-Text Citations and Source Listings
    Note: The following in-text citation examples illustrate how to include page numbers which are included for quotations.

    Book by a single author and in a new edition

    In-text citation: (Saferstein, 1977, p. 10)

    Reference list example:

    Saferstein, R. (1977). Criminalistics: An introduction to forensic science . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

    In-text citation: (Saferstein, 2004, p. 15)

    Reference list example:

    Saferstein, R. (2004). Criminalistics: An introduction to forensic science (8 th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    Book by two to six authors
    Note: For works with more than six authors abbreviate the remaining authors as “et al.”

    In-text citation: (Seager & Slabaugh, 2004, p. 25)

    Reference list example:

    Seager, S. L., & Slabaugh, M. R. (2004). Chemistry for today: General, organic, and biochemistry (5 th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson-Brooks/Cole.

    In-text citation:

    (Pavia, Lampman, Kriz & Engel, 2005, p. 30)

    Note: For subsequent citations of the same book with more than two authors use this form: (Pavia et al., 2005, p. 30).

    Reference list example:

    Pavia, D. L., Lampman, G. M., Kriz, A. S., & Engel, R. G. (2005). Introduction to organic laboratory techniques: A small scale approach (2 nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

    Books with editors

    In-text citation: As Tatar (1998, p. 3) notes ….

    Reference list example:

    Tatar, M. (Ed.). (1998). The classic fairy tales: Texts, criticism. New York: Norton.

    Work from a collection

    In-text citation: (Perrault, 1998, p. 12)

    Reference list example:

    Perrault, C. (1998). Little red riding hood. In M. Tatar (Ed.), The classic fairy tales: Texts, criticism (pp. 11-13). New York: Norton.

    Book published in several volumes

    In-text citation: (Campbell, 1991, Vol. 1, p. 203)

    Reference list example:

    Campbell, J. (1991). The masks of God. (vols. 1-4). New York: Arkana.

    Introduction, preface, foreword or afterword

    In-text citation: (Barrett, 2005, p. vi)

    Reference list example:

    Barrett, H. (2005). Foreword. In L. Mullen, J. Britten, J. McFadden, Digital portfolios in teacher education (pp. v - vii). Indianapolis, IN: Jist Works.

    Entry in an encyclopedia

    In-text citation: (Genuth, 2002, p. 902)

    Reference list example:

    Genuth, S. (2002). Metabolism. In The New Encyclopædia Britannica (Vol. 23, pp. 893-928). Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica.

    Publication of a corporation, foundation, or government agency
    Note: When the author is also the publisher, use the term “Author” after the place of publication.

    First In-text citation: As the Food and Drug Administration states (2002, p. 8) ….

    Note: For subsequent in-text citations you may use abbreviations of names if they are readily understandable: (FDA, 2002, p. 8).

    Reference list example:

    United States Department of Health and Human Services. Food and Drug Administration. (2002). Protecting your child against serious diseases: Making sure they get all their ‘shots' ( FDA 02-9019). Rockville, MD: Author.

    Pamphlet or brochure
    Note: If there is no publication date use (n.d.) for “no date” in place of the year. If there are no pages, indicate paragraph number or approximate page number.

    In-text citation: (American Red Cross, ¶ 3)

    Reference list example:

    American Red Cross. (n.d.). Being your own donor: An explanation of autologus blood transfusion [Brochure]. Rochester, NY: Author.

    Article in a scholarly journal
    Note: For works with more than 6 authors abbreviate the remaining authors as “et al.”

    In-text citation: (Pelter & McQuade, 2005, p. 1811)

    Reference list example:

    Pelter, M. W., & McQuade, J. (2005). Brewing science in the chemistry laboratory: A “mashing” investigation of starch and carbohydrates. Journal of Chemical Education, 82, 1811–1812.

    Article in a monthly periodical

    In-text citation: (Fowler, 2005, p. 31)

    Reference list example:

    Fowler, B. (2005, September/October). A place without history. Archaeology, 58 (5), 30–35.

    Article in a magazine

    In-text citation: (Tolson, 2005, p. 60)

    Reference list example:

    Tolson, J. (2005, October 24). The battle that changed the world. U.S. News and World Report, 139 (15), 56–65.

    Article in a newspaper

    In-text citation: (Wielaard, 2005, p. 11A)

    Reference list example:

    Wielaard, R. (2005, December 16). Europe warns Iran on holocaust denial. Democrat and Chronicle, p. 11A.

    Letter to the editor

    In-text citation: ( Hagen, 2006, p. A26)

    Reference list example:

    Hagen, Stephen J. (2006, February 23). Students e-mail the oddest things [Letter to the editor]. The New York Times, p. A26.

    Editorial

    In-text citation: (“Earthquake,” 2005, p. A26)

    Reference list example:

    Earthquake in Pakistan [Editorial]. (2005, October 13). The New York Times, p. A26.

    Review

    In-text citation: (Weiner, 2005, p. 10)

    Reference list example:

    Weiner, J. (2005, December 18). Proletarian science [Review of the book A people's history of science: Miners, midwives, and ‘low mechanicks' ]. The New York Times Book Review, 110 (51), p. 10.

    Personal interview
    Note: As personal communications are not “recoverable” (cannot be located by the reader), they are not included in the reference list, but are cited in text only. If your instructor indicates that you should include personal communications in your reference list, you can follow the form that follows.

    In-text citation: J. Marchese (personal communication, January 13, 2006)

    Reference list example:

    Marchese, J. (13 January 2006). Personal communication.

    Episode from a television series
    Note: Provide scriptwriters followed by the director (if given).

    In-text citation: (Woodard, 2005)

    Reference list example:

    Woodard, K. (Writer). (2005). Katrina's animal rescue [Television series episode]. In B. Murphy (Producer), Nature. New York: Thirteen/WNET New York.

    Audio recording
    Note: Recording date is included as the last element in the citation.

    In-text citation: (Schwartz, 2003, track 7)

    Reference list example:

    Schwartz, S. (2003). Popular [Recorded by K. Chenoweth]. On Wicked a new musical: original Broadway cast recording [CD]. New York: Decca Broadway (November 10, 2003).

    Video recording/motion picture
    Note: Provide name of primary contributors of director and producer.

    In-text citation: (Ho & George, 2004)

    Reference list example:

    Ho, A. K. (Producer), & George, T. (Producer/Director). (2004). Hotel Rwanda [Motion picture]. United States: Metro Goldwyn Mayer Home Entertainment.

    Work of art/illustration
    Note: A note is placed at the bottom of the reprinted table or figure or in the caption, giving credit to the original author and to the copyright holder.

    Reference list example:

    Escher, M. C. (2004) Sky and water. In D. Schattschneider (Ed.), M.C. Escher, visions of symmetry (p. 263). New York: Harry N. Abrams.

    Classic works (e.g. The Bible)
    Note: Need not be cited in the references; be sure to include the version you used in the first in-text citation.

    In-text citation: Acts 10:17 (Authorized King James Version)

    Electronic Resources
    Note: When providing the URL, do not end the reference with a period. If pages are not given for an online resource, use a heading or paragraph number (indicated by the pilcrow sign ¶ or “para.”) to help the reader relocate the citation. As guidelines, particularly for electronic resources, are constantly changing, see http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html for the most current recommendations.

    Electronic book

    In-text citation: (McCoy, 2003, p. 450)

    Reference list example:

    McCoy, J. (2003). Geo-data: The world geographical encyclopedia . Retrieved June 27, 2006, from Netlibrary.

    Article in an online journal

    In-text citation: (Gopinath, 2005, p. 8)

    Reference list example:

    Gopinath, S. (2005, December 5). Ringtones, or the auditory logic of globalization. First Monday: Peer Reviewed Journal on the Internet, 10 (12). Retrieved December 19, 2005, from http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue10_12/gopinath/index.html

    Article in an online magazine

    In-text citation: (Rowe, 2005, para. 4)

    Reference list example:

    Rowe, M. (2005, November 22). She's no homophobe. The Advocate, (951). Retrieved December 19, 2005, from http://www.advocate.com/

    Article in an online version of a newspaper

    In-text citation: As Barnes (2005, para. 2) reports….

    Reference list example:

    Barnes, S. B. (2005, June 19). Podcasters reach out in their own digital show. Rochester Democrat and Chronicle (NY) . Retrieved December 19, 2005, from Newsbank database.

    Article from a subscription service

    In-text citation: (Wills, Backett-Milburn, Gregory & Lawton, 2006, p. 399)

    Reference list example:

    Wills, W., Backett-Milburn, K., Gregory, S., & Lawton, J. (2006 January). Young teenagers' perceptions of their own and others' bodies: A qualitative study of obese, overweight and 'normal' weight young people in Scotland. Social Science & Medicine, 62, 396-406. Retrieved December 19, 2005, from Elsevier ScienceDirect database.

    Document from a web site
    Note: Entire web sites are not cited; therefore, include the URL within the text instead.

    In-text citation: (National Association for the Education of Young Children, ¶ 1)

    Reference list example:

    National Association for the Education of Young Children. (n.d.) Early childhood education issues . Retrieved May 22, 2006, from http://www.naeyc.org/ece/

    E-mail or online posting
    Note: Es most e-mails and online postings are not archived for a significant time period, they generally are not included in the reference list, but are cited in-text only.

    In-text citation: M. DiSano. (personal e-mail, April 24, 2006)

    Sample Student Paper Documented in APA Style

    Sample paper formatting is adapted from the APA Manual. The title page will include the title of your paper, your name, and institution. Your instructor may also ask you to include a course number or name, and date.

    The page header, which appears on all pages in the upper right, will include the first two or three words of your title, followed by 5 spaces and the page number.

    APA specifies that headings should be used to show how a paper is organized through labeling parts and showing relationship and importance. Undergraduate papers generally use Level 1 and Level 3 headings. Level 1 headings are centered. Level 3 headings, which are subheadings within Level 1 are placed at the left margin and italicized.

    See Sample APA paper for more details

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    MCC Guide to Writing Research Papers.
    Developed by: M. DiSano, A. Penwarden, S. Callan.
    Revised version August 2006. Copyright Monroe Community College.