III. Council of Science Editors (CSE) Style

  • Book by a single author
  • Book by two or more authors
  • Book with editors
  • Book with author, editor, translator, and note
  • Article in an encyclopedia
  • Article in a scholarly journal
  • Monthly journal article
  • Newspaper article
  • Article without an author
  • Videorecording
  • Electronic Resources

    Introduction

    On January 1, 2000, the Council of Biology Editors (CBE) became known as the Council of Science Editors (CSE). The name change reflects their expanding membership. Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers , 7 th edition (2006), lists three versions of documentation. They are citation-name (C-N), citation-sequence (C-S), and name-year (N-Y). In the CSE style, Works Cited are called “Cited References”; Works Consulted are listed under a heading such as “Additional References.”

    For the citation-name (C-N) version, compile the reference list and sequence the references alphabetically by author; then number the references in that sequence and use those numbers for the in-text references. The number for the in-text reference is either a superscript in smaller size, or placed in parentheses on the line.

    Example:

    In-text reference: … as Pavia stated 7.

    Or in-text reference: … as Pavia stated (7).

    Reference list example:

    7. Pavia DL, Lampman GM, Kriz GS, Engel RG. Introduction to organic laboratory techniques: a small-scale approach. 2nd ed. Belmont (CA): Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning; 2005. 1019 p.

    For the citation-sequence (C-S) version, use numbers in-text to represent references. Reuse the same number if a reference is cited more than once. After the paper is complete, compile the reference list according to the sequence in which the references first appear in the paper. The number for the in-text reference is either a superscript in smaller size or placed in parentheses on the line.

    Example:

    In-text reference: … as Pavia stated 1.

    Or in-text reference: … as Pavia stated (1).

    Reference list example:

    1. Pavia DL, Lampman GM, Kriz GS, Engel RG. Introduction to organic laboratory techniques: a small-scale approach. 2nd ed. Belmont (CA): Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning; 2005. 1019 p.

    The C-S version is illustrated in the sample paper (see end).

    For the name-year (N-Y) version, the in-text citation includes the last name of author(s) and year of publication enclosed in parentheses. In the reference list, works are listed alphabetically by the last name of author(s).

    Example:

    In-text reference: (Pavia et al. 2005)

    Reference list example:

    Pavia DL, Lampman GM, Kriz GS, Engel RG. 2005. Introduction to organic laboratory techniques: a small-scale approach. 2nd ed. Belmont (CA): Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning. 1019 p.

    For this guide, we have chosen to illustrate the citation-sequence (C-S). Ask your professor which CSE version he/she recommends for your paper.

    Citation-Sequence (C-S) Examples of Source listings

    Book by single author
    Note: Use the year of publication for the date. If no date of publication is given use the copyright date and precede it with a “c”.
    The last element in the reference, which is the total number of pages (extent), is optional.

    Reference list example:

    Saferstein R. Criminalistics: an introduction to forensic science. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Pearson/Prentice Hall; 2004. 588 p.

    Book by two or more authors
    Note: For two to ten authors list them all. If more than ten authors, list the first ten, followed by a comma, then et al.

    Reference list example:

    Pavia DL, Lampman GM, Kriz GS, Engel RG. Introduction to organic laboratory techniques: a small-scale approach. 2nd ed. Belmont (CA): Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning; 2005. 1019 p.

    Book with editors

    Reference list example:

    Tatar MM, editor. The classic fairy tales: texts, criticism. New York: W.W. Norton & Company; 1998. 394 p.

    Book with author, editor, translator, and note

    Reference list example:

    Alexievich, S. Voices from Chernobyl. Gessen, R, translator. Normal (IL): Dalkey Archive Press; 2005.

    Article in encyclopedia

    Reference list example:

    Genuth S. Metabolism. In: The new encylopædia Britannica. Chicago: Encylopædia Britannica; 2002. p. 893-928.

    Article in scholarly journal
    Note: If given, include issue number in parentheses. Place it after the volume number and follow it by a colon.

    Reference list example:

    Pelter MW, McQuade J. Brewing science in the chemistry laboratory: a “mashing” investigation of starch and carbohydrates. J Chem Educ. 2005;82:1811-1812.

    Monthly journal article

    Reference list example:

    Pelter MW, McQuade J. Brewing science in the chemistry laboratory: a “mashing” investigation of starch and carbohydrates. J Chem Educ. 2005 Dec; 82:1811-1812.

    Newspaper article with author

    Reference list example:

    Wielaard R. Europe warns Iran on holocaust denial. Democrat and Chronicle. 2005 Dec 16;Sect. A:11 (col. 1).

    Article without author

    Reference list example:

    Early walkers. Archaeology. 2004 Nov-Dec;58:14.

    Video recording

    Reference list example:

    George T. Hotel Rwanda [film on DVD]. Santa Monica (CA): Home Entertainment; 2004.

    Electronic Resources
    Note: For Internet resources, it is recommended that a copy be made for future reference. No ending period is used after a URL in a citation unless it concludes with a forward slash (/).

    Electronic book
    Template
    Author(s). Title of book [medium designator]. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date. Physical description.

    Reference list example:

    Devesa SS, Grauman DJ, Blot WJ, Pennello G, Hoover RN, Fraumeni JF Jr. Atlas of cancer mortality in the United States, 1950-94 [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 1999. Available from: http://www3.cancer.gov/atlasplus/new.html

    Article in an online journal
    Note: If page numbers are not given, estimate as best as possible the length of the article and place it within square brackets (such as [8 paragraphs] or [about 10 p.]).

    Template:

    Author(s) of article. Title of article. Title of journal (edition) [medium designator]. Date of publication [date updated; date cited];volume(issue):location. Notes.

    Reference list example:

    Gopinath, S. Ringtones, or the auditory logic of globalization. First Monday: Peer Reviewed Journal on the Internet [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2006 June 26];10(12):[about 49 p.]. Available from http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue10_12/gopinath/index.html

    Article from a subscription service/database

    Template:

    Author(s) of article. Title of article. Title of journal (edition) [medium designator]. Date;volume(issue):location. Physical description. Notes.

    Reference list example:

    Wills, W., Backett-Milburn, K., Gregory, S. & Lawton, J. Young teenagers' perceptions of their own and others' bodies: A qualitative study of obese, overweight and 'normal' weight young people in Scotland. Social Science & Medicine [database]. 2006;62(2):396-406. Available from: Elsevier ScienceDirect database by subscription, http://www.sciencedirect.com/

    E-mail or online posting
    Note: Include information on availability of the item. CSE recommends placing references to personal communications within the running text, not as formal end references. Note the nature and sources of the cited information within parentheses, using a term to indicate clearly that the citation is not represented in the reference list (568).
    Make sure that you have permission from the cited person or organization and include that in a “notes” section that follows the text of the paper which may include additional information such as the reason for the communication.

    In-text reference: (2006 e-mail from M DiSano to me; unreferenced, see “Notes”)

    Internet

    Template:

    Author(s). Title of homepage [Internet]. Place of publication: publisher; date [modified date; cited date]. Available from: URL

    Reference list example:

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US). Avian influenza infection in humans [Internet]. Atlanta , GA: CDC [updated 2006 Apr 24; cited 2006 Jun 26]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/avian-flu-humans.htm

    Sample Student Paper Documented in CSE Style

    The sample paper formatting is adapted from CSE recommendations for research reports.

    The title page should include all information necessary to quickly identify the contents, author(s), and origin (professor's name, course, date).

    Research reports generally have these sections which may or may not be indicated by headings in the text: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, References. If your instructor requests an abstract, that should precede the Introduction.

    See Sample CSE paper for more details

    Return to the Table of Contents

    MCC Guide to Writing Research Papers.
    Developed by: M. DiSano, A. Penwarden, S. Callan.
    Revised version August 2006. Copyright Monroe Community College.