BIO 221 - Principles of Biochemistry
A study of the major chemical constituents of cells including proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. Structure and function will be emphasized. Enzyme kinetics, regulation of enzyme activity, and metabolic pathways will also be covered. Laboratory activities include isolation of biological molecules from different biological samples using a variety of common biochemistry techniques with subsequent analysis and characterization. Fall semester only. Three class hours, three laboratory hours.
Prerequisites: BIO 156 with a grade of C- or better, and CHE 151 with a grade of C- or better, or permission of instructor.
Course Learning Outcomes
1. List the 4 major classes of biomolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids) and explain their structure and function.
2. Define the concepts of pH and buffers, and describe the application of buffer solutions.
3. Describe the basic principles of enzyme catalysis, and explain enzyme kinetics in terms of the Michaelis-Menten rate equation.
4. Distinguish between competitive and noncompetitive enzyme inhibition.
5. Describe carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, citric acid cycle) and lipid metabolism (primarily fatty acid catabolism/anabolism) in terms of cellular energetics, regulation of enzyme activity, and enzyme/coenzyme involvement.
6. Describe the role of the electron transport chain and Mitchell’s Chemiosmotic Hypothesis in oxidative phosphorylation.
7. Describe the lipid bilayer structure of biomembranes and provide ultrastructural details.
8. Describe amino acid metabolism in terms of deamination reactions, the urea cycle, and the role of the citric acid cycle in both catabolism and anabolism of amino acids.
9. Describe nucleotide metabolism in terms of de novo and salvage pathways for biosynthesis, regulation of biosynthetic pathways, and purine and pyrimidine catabolism.
10. Collect, analyze and interpret experimental data, and summarize the findings in written laboratory reports.
Course Offered Fall only