Course Descriptions

The following is a complete listing of courses offered at MCC. You can also visit our Programs of Study page for a list of course requirements necessary to complete your degree.

Click on the blue arrow to expand the list of courses for each area.


Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">AAD - Applied Art and Design</span></div>]
AAD - Applied Art and Design
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">ACC - Accounting</span></div>]
ACC - Accounting
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">ACD - Alcohol/Chemical Dependency</span></di
ACD - Alcohol/Chemical Dependency
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">AFS - African American Studies</span></div>]
AFS - African American Studies
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">AGS - Agricultural Studies</span></div>]
AGS - Agricultural Studies
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">ANT - Anthropology</span></div>]
ANT - Anthropology
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">ARA - Arabic/Foreign Language</span></div>]
ARA - Arabic/Foreign Language
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">ART - Art</span></div>]
ART - Art
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">ASL - American Sign Language/Foreign Languag
ASL - American Sign Language/Foreign Language
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">ATP - Automotive Technology</span></div>]
ATP - Automotive Technology
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">BIO - Biology</span></div>]
BIO - Biology
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">BUS - Business</span></div>]
BUS - Business
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">CDL - Interdisciplinary</span></div>]
CDL - Interdisciplinary
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">CE  - Cooperative Education-Disney World</sp
CE - Cooperative Education-Disney World
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">CE  - Hospitality</span></div>]
CE - Hospitality
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">CEL - Leadership</span></div>]
CEL - Leadership
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">CHE - Chemistry</span></div>]
CHE - Chemistry
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">CHI - Chinese/Foreign Language</span></div>]
CHI - Chinese/Foreign Language
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">CIN - Cinema Studies</span></div>]
CIN - Cinema Studies
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">CIS - Computer Information Systems</span></d
CIS - Computer Information Systems
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">CIT - Civil and Construction Technology</spa
CIT - Civil and Construction Technology
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">CLT - Clinical Laboratory Technician</span><
CLT - Clinical Laboratory Technician
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">COM - Communication</span></div>]
COM - Communication
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">COS - College Success</span></div>]
COS - College Success
Hide details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">CPT - Computer Technology</span></div>]
CPT - Computer Technology

CPT 101 - Programming in Python

4 Credits

A gentle introduction to basic programming concepts using Python. Python is a high-level, interpreted object oriented programming language with built in data structures and dynamic data typing. This results in programs that are typically much shorter than programs written in Java or C++. Python’s built in debugger allows the developer to inspect variables, set breakpoints and evaluate expressions in real-time. The underlying C and Java like structure and modularity allow for easy integration or linkage to existing programs in these languages. The combined features of Python are well suited for rapid program development leading to enhanced productivity. Practical applications of Python may be found in the prominent fields of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics. This course utilizes an electronic-classroom setting to introduce the beginner or curious programmer to Python and basic programming concepts through a series of practical hands-on exercises interlaced with the discussion material.

MTH 104 with a grade of C or better, or MCC level 8 mathematics placement.

MCC General Education: MCC-TL - Technological Literacy (MTL)

CPT 114 - Problem Solving and Robotics

3 Credits

This course is designed to develop and/or enhance practical problem solving skills and apply these skills to Robotics. Challenging exercises and robotics projects are designed to foster critical thinking that is particularly useful to students interested in the engineering, computational and networking disciplines. The course focuses on the analysis, design and implementation phases in developing a complete solution to a given problem. Major concepts discussed include algorithm development,number systems conversions, logic flow diagram development, and solution testing. Appropriate use of data types, conditional selection, repetitive, and iterative solutions are emphasized throughout the course. A data flow programming approach using LabView is utilized extensively throughout the course to implement and test concepts. Projects make use of the exciting and challenging Lego Mindstorms Robotics system to create real-life applications that build on the skills developed throughout the course.

Prerequisite: MTH 104 with a grade of C, or higher level Algebra course

CPT 115 - Introduction to Networks

3 Credits

This course corresponds to the first semester of the Cisco Networking Academy Exploration track. It introduces students to the architecture, structure, functions, components, and models of the Internet and other computer networks. It uses the OSI and TCP layered models to examine the nature and roles of protocols and services at the application, network, data link, and physical layers. The principles and structure of IP addressing and the fundamentals of Ethernet concepts, media, and operations are introduced to provide a foundation for further studies in computer networking. Hands-on labs for this course use a “model Internet” to allow students to analyze real data without affecting production networks. At the end of the course, students build simple LAN topologies by applying basic principles of cabling, performing basic configurations of network devices such as routers and switches, and implementing IP addressing schemes.

CPT 120 - Introduction to Cybersecurity

4 Credits

Designed for students with no security experience or background, this course will cover basic terminology and concepts. Included will be the basics of computers and networking such as Internet Protocol, routing, Domain Name Service, and network devices. This course will introduce students to the basics of cryptography, security management, wireless networking, and organizational policy. Topics will include: an overview of the information security framework, network infrastructure security, security and cryptography, information security policy, and defense in depth. Other topics covered in this course include: basic security terminology and professional terms, network basics, tracert, nslookup, ipconfig, ping, DNS, DoS attacks, overview of malware, rules for avoiding viruses and vulnerabilities.

MCC General Education: MCC-TL - Technological Literacy (MTL)

CPT 125 - Physical Security

3 Credits

This course focuses on the design and implementation of network physical security policies and mechanisms. Physical security is the protection of personnel, hardware, programs, networks, and data from physical circumstances and events that could cause serious losses or damage to an enterprise, agency, or institution. This includes protection from fire, natural disasters, burglary, theft, vandalism, and terrorism.

CPT 210 - Operating Systems and Peripherals

3 Credits

Fundamental multitasking/multi-user operating system concepts, as applicable to modern day computer systems, are studied. Major topics include priority boosting, priority and round robin scheduling, virtual memory management, paging, mapping, swapping, and process management. Applications that interface to the outside world via the PC's external I/O ports are examined in the laboratory. Emphasis is placed on developing simple "device drivers" using a combination of low and high level language tools.

Prerequisites: A grade of C or better in CIS 200, CSC 101 or CPT 101.

CPT 211 - Android App Design for Mobile Devices

3 Credits

An introduction to the design and implementation of mobile applications using the Android computing platform. Students will utilize standard software development techniques, including the use of an integrated development environment and software development kits, to build mobile applications. The applications will include capture and processing of data from the integrated sensors found in a typical mobile device.

Prerequisite(s): CSC 101 or CPT 101 or CIS 101

CPT 212 - Wireless and Remote Sensor Technology

3 Credits

This course introduces the student to concepts employed in the wireless acquisition of data from remote sensors found on airborne devices such as aircraft, spacecrafts, and satellites as well as from sensors integrated into common commercially available medical devices, tablets and smartphones. The use of remote sensors involves the acquisition of information on an object, phenomenon or an environment with minimum physical contact. In practice this is achieved by acquiring information from sensors that are responsive to environmental elements, which may be atmospheric (air pressure, vibration, humidity) or electromagnetic radiation that may be in the form of invisible (heat) or visible radiation. Students will explore various applications of sensors in a laboratory setting, apply their knowledge of digital electronics, networking and programming and gain experience integrating commercially available electro-optical, magnetic and environmental sensors into a practical wireless application.

Prerequisite(s): MTH 165, ENR 157, CSC 202 all with a grade of C or better.

CPT 213 - Computer Systems Design Lab

1 Credit

Students will work in teams to solve an application and/or design problem selected from an intercollegiate design challenge or a student proposal approved by the instructor. The students will design and build a working prototype, create a design report, and make an oral presentation. Each student will be required to maintain a weekly ledger in the form of a lab book that details work performed and progress that is periodically reviewed and graded by the instructor.

Prerequisite: CSC 202

CPT 215 - Routing Fundamentals

3 Credits

This course corresponds to the second semester of the Cisco Networking Academy Exploration track. It describes the architecture, components, and operation of routers, and explains the principles of routing and routing protocols. Students analyze, configure, verify, and troubleshoot the primary routing protocols RIPv1, RIPv2, EIGRP, and OSPF. By the end of this course, students will be able to recognize and correct common routing issues and problems.

Prerequisites: CPT 115 with a grade of C or better.

CPT 216 - Advanced Networking Concepts

3 Credits

This course focuses on securing local and wide area networks from the network administrator and an outside point of view. With successful completion of this course, students will have a thorough understanding of how outsiders attack networks and how to prevent these attacks from being successful. Students will also have a thorough understanding of current technologies that run over LANs and WANs and demand robust security. These technologies will be covered in depth throughout this course.

Prerequisite: CPT 215 with a grade of C or better.

CPT 217 - LAN Switching

3 Credits

This course corresponds to the third semester of the Cisco Networking Academy Exploration track and provides a comprehensive, theoretical, and practical approach to learning the technologies and protocols needed to design and implement a converged switched network. Students learn about the hierarchical network design model and how to select devices for each layer.

The course explains how to configure a switch for basic functionality and how to implement Virtual LANs (VLAN), VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP), and Inter-VLAN routing in a converged network. The different implementations of Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) in a converged network are presented, and students develop the knowledge and skills necessary to implement a wireless local-area network (WLAN) in a small-to-medium network.

Prerequisite: CPT 215

CPT 218 - WAN Systems

3 Credits

This course corresponds to the fourth semester of the Cisco Networking Academy Exploration track. It explores the WAN technologies and network services required by converged applications in enterprise networks. The course uses the Cisco Network Architecture to introduce integrated network services and explains how to select the appropriate devices and technologies to meet network requirements. Students learn how to implement and configure common data link protocols and how to apply WAN security concepts, principles of traffic, access control, and addressing services. Finally, students learn how to detect, troubleshoot, and correct common enterprise network implementation issues.

Prerequisite: CPT 217

CPT 220 - Applied Computer Security Concepts

4 Credits

This course would provide students with the skills and knowledge needed to secure organizational resources. Topics covered include: a review of networking protocols, IOS and router filters, physical security, information assurance, computer security policies, contingency planning, business impact analysis, password management, information warfare, intrusion detection, honey pots, attack vectors, firewalls and perimeters, risk assessment and auditing, cryptography and steganography, PGP, wireless, operational security, permissions and user rights, service patches, securing network services, security baseline analyzers, Linux, and virtual machines.

Prerequisite: CPT 120 or permission of instructor.

CPT 225 - Network Perimeter Security

4 Credits

This course focuses on the design and implementation of network perimeter security. Topics include: threat vectors, encapsulation at OSI layers 2, 3, 4, and 5, packet decoding, static filters, stateful filters, stateful inspection, intrusion detection and prevention, Network Address Translation (NAT), Access Control Lists (ACLs), Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), proxies, border routers, firewall rule bases, web application and database firewalls, securing the OS and services, firewall assessment, vulnerability assessment, baseline audits, forensics, logging, encryption, authentication, VPNs, wireless, network access control, and security tools.

Prerequisite: CPT 120

CPT 290 - Independent Study

Variable Credit

See the Department Chairperson.

Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">CRC - Computer Related Curricula</span></div
CRC - Computer Related Curricula
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">CRJ - Criminal Justice</span></div>]
CRJ - Criminal Justice
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">CSC - Computer Science</span></div>]
CSC - Computer Science
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">DAS - Dental Assisting</span></div>]
DAS - Dental Assisting
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">DEN - Dental Hygiene</span></div>]
DEN - Dental Hygiene
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">EBL - Experience Based Learning</span></div>
EBL - Experience Based Learning
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">ECE - Education and Early Care</span></div>]
ECE - Education and Early Care
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">ECO - Economics</span></div>]
ECO - Economics
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">EDU - Education</span></div>]
EDU - Education
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">ELT - Electrical Engineering Technology/Elec
ELT - Electrical Engineering Technology/Electronics
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">EMS - Emergency Medical Services</span></div
EMS - Emergency Medical Services
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">ENG - English Literature</span></div>]
ENG - English Literature
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">ENG - English Writing</span></div>]
ENG - English Writing
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">ENR - Engineering Science</span></div>]
ENR - Engineering Science
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">ESL - English For Speakers Of Other Language
ESL - English For Speakers Of Other Languages (ESOL)
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">ESL - Transitional Studies</span></div>]
ESL - Transitional Studies
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">FPT - Fire Protection Technology</span></div
FPT - Fire Protection Technology
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">FRE - French/Foreign Language</span></div>]
FRE - French/Foreign Language
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">FSA - Food Service Administration</span></di
FSA - Food Service Administration
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">GEG - Geography</span></div>]
GEG - Geography
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">GEO - Geology</span></div>]
GEO - Geology
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">GER - German/Foreign Language</span></div>]
GER - German/Foreign Language
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">GLF - Golf Management</span></div>]
GLF - Golf Management
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">GLS - Global Studies</span></div>]
GLS - Global Studies
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">GSS - Gender and Sexuality Studies</span></d
GSS - Gender and Sexuality Studies
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">HBR - Hebrew/Foreign Language</span></div>]
HBR - Hebrew/Foreign Language
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">HED - Health Education</span></div>]
HED - Health Education
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">HEG - Health Education Global</span></div>]
HEG - Health Education Global
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">HEG - Health Professions</span></div>]
HEG - Health Professions
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">HIM - Health Information Technology</span></
HIM - Health Information Technology
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">HIS - History</span></div>]
HIS - History
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">HMN - Humanities</span></div>]
HMN - Humanities
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">HON - Honors Studies</span></div>]
HON - Honors Studies
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">HSM - Homeland Security Administration</span
HSM - Homeland Security Administration
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">HSP - Hospitality</span></div>]
HSP - Hospitality
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">HTL - Hotel Technology</span></div>]
HTL - Hotel Technology
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">HUM - Human Services</span></div>]
HUM - Human Services
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">HVA - Heating, Ventilating & Air Conditionin
HVA - Heating, Ventilating & Air Conditioning
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">IDE - Interior Design</span></div>]
IDE - Interior Design
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">ITA - Italian/Foreign Language</span></div>]
ITA - Italian/Foreign Language
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">JPN - Japanese/Foreign Language</span></div>
JPN - Japanese/Foreign Language
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">LAW - Law</span></div>]
LAW - Law
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">LDS - Leadership</span></div>]
LDS - Leadership
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">MAR - Marketing</span></div>]
MAR - Marketing
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">MET - Mechanical Technology</span></div>]
MET - Mechanical Technology
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">MTH - Mathematics</span></div>]
MTH - Mathematics
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">MUS - Music</span></div>]
MUS - Music
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">NUR - Nursing</span></div>]
NUR - Nursing
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">OFT - Office Technology</span></div>]
OFT - Office Technology
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">OPT - Optical Systems Technology</span></div
OPT - Optical Systems Technology
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">PE  - Physical Education--Coed</span></div>]
PE - Physical Education--Coed
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">PEC - Physical Education--Coed</span></div>]
PEC - Physical Education--Coed
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">PEJ - Physical Education-Criminal Justice</s
PEJ - Physical Education-Criminal Justice
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">PEM - Physical Education--Men</span></div>]
PEM - Physical Education--Men
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">PEW - Physical Education-Women</span></div>]
PEW - Physical Education-Women
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">PHL - Philosophy</span></div>]
PHL - Philosophy
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">PHO - Photography</span></div>]
PHO - Photography
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">PHY - Physics</span></div>]
PHY - Physics
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">PLE - Police: Law Enforcement</span></div>]
PLE - Police: Law Enforcement
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">PLS - Paralegal Studies</span></div>]
PLS - Paralegal Studies
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">POS - Political Science</span></div>]
POS - Political Science
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">PPE - Physical Studies/Physical Education</s
PPE - Physical Studies/Physical Education
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">PSC - Public Safety Communications</span></d
PSC - Public Safety Communications
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">PSC - Public Safety Training</span></div>]
PSC - Public Safety Training
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">PST - Public Safety Training</span></div>]
PST - Public Safety Training
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">PSY - Psychology</span></div>]
PSY - Psychology
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">REA - Reading</span></div>]
REA - Reading
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">SBS - Social & Behavioral Sciences</span></d
SBS - Social & Behavioral Sciences
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">SCI - Science</span></div>]
SCI - Science
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">SCR - Computer Security</span></div>]
SCR - Computer Security
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">SGT - Surgical Technology</span></div>]
SGT - Surgical Technology
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">SMT - Sports Management</span></div>]
SMT - Sports Management
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">SOC - Sociology</span></div>]
SOC - Sociology
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">SPA - Spanish/Foreign Language</span></div>]
SPA - Spanish/Foreign Language
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">SPC - Speech Communication</span></div>]
SPC - Speech Communication
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">STT - Solar Thermal Technology</span></div>]
STT - Solar Thermal Technology
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">SUS - Sustainability Studies</span></div>]
SUS - Sustainability Studies
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">SVL - Service Learning</span></div>]
SVL - Service Learning
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">TAM - Tooling and Machining</span></div>]
TAM - Tooling and Machining
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">TEK - Technology</span></div>]
TEK - Technology
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">THE - Theatre</span></div>]
THE - Theatre
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">TOY - Toyota</span></div>]
TOY - Toyota
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">TRS - Transitional Studies</span></div>]
TRS - Transitional Studies
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">TVL - Travel And Tourism</span></div>]
TVL - Travel And Tourism
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">URS - Urban Studies</span></div>]
URS - Urban Studies
Show details for [<div class="Course_Table_Content"><span style="font-weight:bold">XRT - Radiologic Technology</span></div>]
XRT - Radiologic Technology